CIFIA GLOBAL

CIF INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION GLOBAL OFFICES

 

 

 

 

 

 

SIDDIQUI'S EXEGESIS  

تفسيرِ صدّيقي 

SURA  AL-FATEHA

سُورة اَلفاتحة 

 

PART (2)

 

Written in Urdu By

Hadhrat Mohammed Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui "Hasrat"رحمة لله عليه )

 

Rendered into English by

Ash-Shaikh Mir Asedullah Quadri

 

Under the guidance and supervision of

Hadhrat Ghouse Mohiuddin Siddiqui 

 

blue collide horizontal line

 

THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED TO 

Hadhrat Hussain Shujauddin Siddiqui ( رحمة لله عليه )

 

The entire credit for the translation work goes to my Shaikh who encouraged me and supported me to undertake this awesome task.  

The helm of spiritual hierarchy held by Shaikh Mohammed Abdul Qadeer Siddique Hasrat ( رحمة لله عليه ) in his lifetime was later held by his son and successor, Hadhrat Hussain Shujauddin Siddique Izzat ( رحمة لله عليه ).  He was a true replica of his great father and a rare gem of tawakkal, humility and selfless living of a Complete Human Being (Insaan-e-Kamil).

He continued the works started by Hadhrat Mohammed Abdul Qadeer Siddique ( رحمة لله عليه ) with the same zeal and enthusiasm. 

 

Ash Shaikh Mir Asedullah Shah Quadri

 

blue collide horizontal line

 

FOREWORD

 

Hadhrat Ghouse Mohiuddin Siddiqui

 

 
بِسم الله الرحمنِ الرحيم  

 الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين

 

Tafseer-e-Siddiqui (Siddiqui’s Exegesis) does not require any formal introduction.  It was first published during the lifetime of Shaikh Mohammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui (رحمة لله عليه) and since then it has been very popular among Urdu readers not only in the Indian subcontinent but throughout the world.  It is unique in many ways.  The readers will come to know about its exclusive features when they read it.

The Muslim nation throughout the world is facing great many problems these days.  The misunderstanding of Shariah is not only resulting in the birth of new sects within its fold, but other communities of the world are using their own interpretations of the Shariah to suit their territorial and economic ambitions.  Their misunderstanding is based on their ignorance about Islam.   Siddiqui’s exegesis is the need of the hour as it clarifies not only the misunderstanding of various sects within Islam, but also the misunderstandings of other communities around the world. Perhaps the most important feature of this exegesis is Shaikh has concluded the centuries’ old confusion about the abrogation of the verses, convincingly proving that no verse of the Holy Quran is abrogated.  Thus, Shaikh is one among the greatest Islamic scholars who have served the Muslim nation at different intervals in the history of Islam.

It has been our wish for a long time to bring an English translation of Siddiqui’s exegesis so that English readership also benefits from it. Alhamdulillah, this wish of ours has been fulfilled by Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) as Tafsir of Sura Fateha has been translated into English.   

Quadri does not require any formal introduction.  He is providing us with excellent English translations of the Shaikh’s works and the current work in your hands, the translation of Chapter Al-Fatiha (Surah Al Fatiha) is an example of this.  May Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) bless Quadri for his efforts and hard work!

My sincere prayers are for the readers of the exegesis.  May Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) accept this translation as its original work and let all of us benefit from it.

 

AL-FAQEER 

Ghouse Mohiuddin Siddiqui, Son and successor of Shaikh Mohammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui ( رحمة لله عليه )

21 Shabaan, 1422 AH   (November 9, 2001) 

 

 

blue collide horizontal line

 

PREFACE 

  

Ash Shaikh Mir Asedullah Quadri
 
 
 
بِسم الله الرحمنِ الرحيم  

 الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين

 
Siddiqui’s Exegesis (تفسيرِ صدّيقي); translation and commentary of the Openeing Chapter (Surah Al Fatiha) is the thirteenth work translated in the series of translations of Hazrat Mohammed Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui “Hasrat” (رحمة لله عليه) (1871-1962) works which were written in Urdu and published during his lifetime.  
The Tafseer of Sura Al-Fatiha has been divided into two parts.
Since English has emerged a dominant international language of communication, it was considered necessary to enlighten the English readers about Shaikh’s works.

On reading Siddiqui’s Exegesis, it seems that the Shaikh was not only aware of what was happening in the Islamic world during the first half of the 20th century but had visualized what was forthcoming in the following centuries as well.  He realized the need of the modern world and picked up his pen to write not only the most convincing translation and commentary of the Holy Quran as per the requirements of our time but also scores of books on various subjects relating to the religious and social issues of the present day Muslim nation.

Shaikh is one of the greatest scholars of Islam who has proved convincingly that no verse of the Holy Quran is abrogated.  He has cleared the centuries’ old confusion about it among Muslim scholars.  For details, please read our book, “The exception, preservation and non-abrogation of the Holy Quran.”  This book is available in the market.

The complexity of the subject, Shaikh’s mastery in it and his unique style of expression made English translation of Siddiqui’s Exegesis an uphill task.  However, the Grace of Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and Shaikh’s blessings made this task possible.  I have tried to bring out the essence of Shaikh’s explanations to its full.  However, I request learned readers to be positive in understanding the terms used in the backdrop of Islamic law, the Shariah, so that these lead them to the correct intrinsic meanings.

I am greatly indebted to Hazrat Ghouse Mohiuddin Siddiqui, the son and successor of the author for his support, encouragement, guidance and supervision in continuation of this translation work.

And I am also thankful to Prof. Mohammed Muzzammil Mohiuddin for his valuable suggestions in simplifying the text of this translation.  His cooperation is indeed significant.

I pray to Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) and seek the Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) blessings in letting me and the readers benefit for this endeavor.  I sincerely seek Shaykh’s pardon for any oversight and shortcoming in this translation and seek his blessings in the better understanding and translation of his works in future. 

 

 

      Shaikh Mir Asedullah Shah Quadri

         17 Shabaan, 1422 AH ( November 5, 2001)   

 

blue collide horizontal line

  

 

SIDDIQUI'S EXEGESIS  

تفسيرِ صدّيقي 

CHAPTER AL-FATEHA

سُورة اَلفاتحة

 

 

Hadhrat Mohammed Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui "Hasrat" ( رحمة لله عليه )

 

بِسم الله الرحمنِ الرحيم  

 الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين   

 

 

اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ

Ihdinas Siraatal Mustaqeem

 

(اِهْدِ) Guide me.  (اِهْدِنَا) Guide us.  (هَدَ يَهْدِي  - هِدَايَةً - صِرَاةً) Actually the word (صِرَاةً)  was with the Arabic letter (س). (سَرَطَ)  swallowed;  meaning the way has swallowed the wayfarer.  Like (لقم) also mean the way, path, which denotes that it swallowed its wayfarer as morsel.  The joining of the Arabic alphabet (ط) with the alphabet (س) was replaced by (ص), which has also been joined with (ط).

(مُسْتَقِيْمٌ) Meaning - Straight, even, smooth – straight line, which is in the middle and the smallest of all the lines and which does not have curves, breakages, etc.  Thus, the straight path takes you to the destiny very fast. The straight line is only one.  The curved or deviated lines are infinite. Straight lines coincide with each other, therefore the people of the straight path are all united.  They neither fight nor kill each other.

اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ – [Lead us to the straight path.]

 

There are two meanings of Hidaya (ہدایت), as follows: 

(i) (اِرَائَةُ الطَّرِيْقِ) ( to show the right path or to show the address).   It is in Quran - إِنَّ هَـٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ يَهْدِي لِلَّتِي هِيَ أَقْوَمُ  [The Holy Quran shows the path which is straight). (Al-Israa - 9).   

(ii)  (اِيْصَالْ اِلَى الْمَطْلُوب) (To take to the objective, aim).  It is in Quran -  as is in the Holy Quran -  إِنَّكَ لَا تَهْدِي مَنْ أَحْبَبْتَ  [ You cannot take everyone you like to the desired objective.] (Al-Qasas - 56).    (هَدَى) comes with (اِلى).  It is in Quran -  مَّن يَهْدِي إِلَى الْحَقِّ  [ Which guides you towards truth.] (Yunus - 35).  The Arabic alphabet (ل), also comes with (هَدَى).  It is in Quran -   قُلِ اللَّهُ يَهْدِي لِلْحَقِّ [You say Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) guides you towards the Truth.] (Yunus - 35).   Sometimes, there is no alphabet with a straight vowel sign below,  neither (اِلى) nor the (ل).  Like in this verse اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ.

 

The Principles of Guidance and their various types are given below.

(i)  Providence of required strengths -   By using the skills and strengths given, like intelligence, outward and intrinsic senses, etc. one is led to the right path.

(ii) Established proofs -  Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) has established certain proofs that differentiate between Truth and  falsehood and between Counsel and Dissension.   It is in Quran - وَهَدَيْنَاهُ النَّجْدَيْنِ  [ We have shown him both the paths. ] (Al-Balad - 10)

(iii) Advent of Prophets and revelation of scriptures -   It is in Quran - وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا [ We have made them chiefs so that they guide people at Our behest.] (Al-Anbiya - 73).  It is in Quran -   هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ  [ This Quran is a book of guidance for those who care to live aright. ] (Al-Baqara - 2)

(iv)  Unveiling (کشف) -  Some people get true dreams.  Some get inspirations (الہام) and the Prophets get revelations (وحی). It is in Quran -  وَالَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا فِينَا لَنَهْدِيَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنَا  [ The people who strive in our way, we show and put them on the right path.] (Al-Ankaboot - 69)

 

The purport of (صِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ) for a person is every right thing, which he wants to act upon.  Extremes in either directions, or derth and excess, both are inappropriate.  The evolution of independence in mind and atheism leads one to  antitheism and the person becomes jealous with the name of God.  He does not vow in the name of God, rather he does it by his honor.  Utmost ‘self obeisance,’ leads one to idol worship. The person believes that divinity has transmigrated into his ancestors/forefathers.

The middle path is to understand Allah (سبحانه و تعالی), as Almighty and love the people loved by Him.   Among Muslims, Kharijites are on one side while the other side is held by the Shiites; in the middle is the path of Sunnah.  It is neither overbearance nor destiny, the truth is in the middle.  Human being is considered to wield power after developing of the ‘will,’ though his ‘will’ and the circumstances before that, may not have involved his will earlier.  People cannot wield power in consideration of the schedule of events of the Cosmos, but they are regarded to possess an ‘individualistic attitude’ (جزوی اختیار).  In consideration of the ‘constant cause’ (علت تامہ), everything has to happen. However,  in consideration of the ‘deficient cause’ (علت ناقصہ), the human being has an individual power of choice.  The manifestative power  in  individual   human beings is seen by everyone.  People not wielding power is a thing in ‘the mind.’  What is there in destiny, nobody knows and is manifested after its occurrence.  The people who are lazy and useless,  complain about the destiny and try to escape behind their false pretexts.  Those who work and endeavor, supplicate continuously and expect that their prayers will be granted by Almighty Allah.

Sometimes there is a requirement in the destiny for supplication.  Once you supplicate, the results come in favor and when you don’t supplicate, the results do not appear, and you do not get your objective.  To supplicate or not is also a part of destiny. 

With the judge of the court of law, the criminal wields power, but with the philosopher, nobody wields power.  On one side is ‘absolute emulation’ (تقلید مض) and on the other is total independence.  In the middle is the place of interpretation of the knowledgeable (in the light of Quran, Ahadith, opinions of Islamic dignitaries.  The sequence in this category is (i) Absolute interpretation (اجتہاد مطلق);  (ii)  The interpretation of the school of thought (اجتہاد فی المذہب);  (iii)  Interpretation of the issue (اجتہاد فی المسئلہ); and  (iv)  Interpretation of preference (ترجیح).  New issues are investigated all the time and an imperative for the Truth is found which is followed by all. 

Between socialism and imperfect democracy;  and monarchy and despotism;  is  Islamic election and caliphate.  Between intrepidity ( fighting on insignificant issues) and cowardice (dastardliness and disappointment), is bravery and valor.  Between greed and  dexterity is , political groupism.  Between  stupidity and dullness is; knowledge, gnosis, acumen and simplicity.  Between extravagance and miserliness is generosity.  Between optimism and threat, is  truthfulness. 

The meaning of optimism is that the Muslim will never go to hell.  The meaning of threat is every sinner will necessarily be subjected to torment.  The middle path is that Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) accepts your repentance and also grants the intercession of Prophets, and virtuous people.  He can either chastise or pardon (the sinner) or convert the (record of) his sinful acts into virtuous acts.

The faith of Muslims is between apprehension and optimism;  between fear and hopefulness.  It is not known what the ‘Most knowledgeable and Most Wise (Allah - سبحانه و تعالی) will do.  We have to evaluate if our deeds are very weak, do they deserve acceptance for recompense or not. The good person is balanced, does not slip to either of the side.  It is essential that one walks on the straight path and does not indulge in either of the extremes.  Those who are deviated from moderation should fear Hell.  The mercury should be stationary at 98.5 degrees.  If it goes up, it is fever, if it goes down, it is weakness; in both the cases you are ill.  Excessive excitement is hurtful,  and less than required zeal is destructive.

When a Muslim is on the right path only, why does he say:  اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ? 

Because its meanings are:  O' Almighty, establish us on the right path.  Even if the faith and belief is correct, kindly keep us patient on difficulties we come across in doing virtuous deeds and also on inevitable infliction which may befall on us from various directions. Save us from evil considerations, doubts and suspicions and keep us walking on the way of Truth.  Though it looks an abstract supplication, but it is comprehensive and wholesome at the same time.  With correct faith, we should do virtuous deeds as well.

 

 

صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ

Siraatal Lazeena An’amta alayhim

 

(صِرَاطَ) meaning path, way.  (الَّذِينَ) meaning which is of.  (أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ)  meaning you have conferred your bestowal on them.  صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ is the substitute of الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ.  In other words, it is like this:  اهْدِنَا صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ .  The meaning of (نعمت) is bestowal and (منفعت) is advantage which has been conferred upon others as a favor.  Thus, when some benefit is given in consideration of accomplishing certain tasks and objectives, it will be known as remuneration or wages but it is not bestowal or advantage.  The meaning of the Arabic word (نعومة) are softness.  Like (يَدٌ نَاعِمَةٌ) meaning, the soft or tender hands.  Again the bestowal is used in the meaning of favor by which a person can get pleasure and joy.  There are two types of bestowals,  in this world and in Hereafter. 

صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ  -  [The path of those on whom you have awarded your bestowal.]

 

Allah's (سبحانه و تعالى) Bestowal (نعمت الہی)

There are various types and bestowals in this world also.  Like (i)  Inherent (وہبی) and (ii)  Acquired (كَسَبي).

There are categories of inherent bestowal also.  (a)  Spiritual and (b)  Corporeal. Spiritual bestowal is blowing of the soul in the human body and taking assistance from intelligence and senses.  Corporeal bestowal is creation of body and its strengths, and keeping up of all parts of the body secured and healthy. 

Acquired bestowal is creating distinctive excellence and relinquishing vilifications.  Getting associated with virtuous attributes, refraining from evil habits, not involving in evil acts, getting pardon for the previous sins, being rewarded with the company of the Prophets, and truthful people;  all these are divine bestowals, favors and munificences.

There is one more category of bestowal (i) Direct - The bestowal which comes directly from Allah (سبحانه و تعالی), like coming into being of creatures, our birth.  (ii)  Indirect - All bestowals are from Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) only, but certain bestowals reach us through someone, like parents, teacher, king; their favors would not have reached us if Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) did not wish for it.  (iii)  Those favors which have been conferred upon us as a reward of our exclusive obedience.  These rewards are also from Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) because our hands, legs and other parts of the body have been given by Him and guidance and inclination to do good deeds is also given by Him. Thus, the antecedent and the source of realization of munificence is Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) alone.  It is in Quran - وَمَا بِكُم مِّن نِّعْمَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ  [Whatever bestowal you are given, it is from Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) only.] (An-Nahl - 53).  The most important of all is the bestowal of faith (نعمتِ ايمان).  The rest are its branches. 

Who are the people who have been referred to in this verse: الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ?   It is in Quran -  فَأُولَـٰئِكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَالصِّدِّيقِينَ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَالصَّالِحِينَ ۚ وَحَسُنَ أُولَـٰئِكَ رَفِيقًا [  These are the people with those upon whom Allah has bestowed favors from among the prophets and the truthful and the martyrs and the good, and a goodly company are they.] (An-Nisa - 69)

What are these people? They are exclusive companions of the path. Then the text will be like this -  اهْدِنَا صِرَاطَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَالصِّدِّيقِينَ [ Lead us to the path of Prophets and truthful people]. 

Now the most desired objective is the bestowal, to lead us to follow, the seal of the Prophets (لَا نَبِيَّ بَعْدَهُ).  To follow Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) has also become our objective and similarly his caliphate is also established.  The other three Caliphs:  Hadhrat ‘Umar, Hadhrat Usman and Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضي الله تعالى عنهم اجمعين) are martyred and truthful also.  Thus, their following is also important and their caliphate is also established.  Let it be evident that the Truthfulness and martyrdom remains after the period of Prophethood.  Therefore the subordination of Hadhrat Imam Abu Hanifa, Hadhrat Imam Shafa’ee, Imam Malik, and Imam Ahmad bin Hambal (رضي الله تعالى عنهم اجمعين) is  required.  Similarly, the subordination of Hadhrat Sayyidi Shaykh Mohiuddin ‘Abdul Quader Jeelani, Hadhrat Khaja Moinuddin Chishti, Hadhrat Ahmad Kabir Rafaa’i, Hadhrat Bahauddin Muhammad al-Bukhari Naqshand, Hadhrat Abul Hasan Ali Shazli and others (رحمة لله عليهم اجمعين) is also required.  Similarly a person who does the promise of allegiance on the hands of a Shaikh of Ihsan as his  spiritual mentor is required to learn Islam under his subordination and his shaikh is also included in the meaning of أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ

Islam is desirous of universal peace and therefore this is the religion of rapprochement. We believe in Adam (علیه السلا م), Noah (علیه السلا م), Moses (علیه السلا م) Jesus (علیه السلا م) and others who have been mentioned in Quran.  Every believer in Noah (علیه السلا م) is a believer in Adam (علیه السلا م), and every believer in Abraham (علیه السلا م) is a believer in Noah (علیه السلا م). Everybody who believes in Moses (علیه السلا م) is a believer of Abraham ( علیه السلا م ) and whoever believes in Jesus ( علیه السلا م )  is a believer of Moses ( علیه السلا م ). Similarly everybody who believes in Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) believes in Noah ( علیه السلا م ), in Abraham ( علیه السلا م ), in Moses ( علیه السلا م ) and in Jesus (علیه السلا م).

Not to believe in any one of the Prophet is contrary to Islam.  Disrespect of any Prophet in Islam is like disrespect of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). 

The Shaikh says, what is proved out of the above? It is proved that the Ibrahimi is also Noohi, the Moosavi is also Ibrahimi and the Christian (Isavi) is also Moosavi.  One who is Muhammadi is also Aadami, Noohi, Ibrahimi, Moosavi, Eisavi and Muslim.

Gentlemen, in the human body there are chief organs like heart, liver, stomach, lungs and grain.  All these have connection with the Sublime World.  The vocational invocators (ذاکر وشاغل) are aware that each these chief organs is connected with a resolute Prophet and every Prophet has one special attribute.  Adam (عليه السلا م) is aware of the Epithets of Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) and the facts of things in an abstract form. It is in Quran -  وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الْأَسْمَاءَ كُلَّهَا  [ Adam -  عليه السلام  was taught about all the epithets.] (Al-Baqara - 31)

Noah (علیه السلا م) is distinct for “the concern for defense of religion”.  It is in Quran - رَبِّ لَا تَذَرْ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ دَيَّارًا [O My Lord. Don’t spare anyone among the atheist inhabitants of this world.]  (Nooh - 26). 

Abraham (علیه السلا م) has special distinction in acquiescence and cheerful acceptance  (تسليم و رضا). Consider his state of affairs.  (Allah - سبحانه و تعا لی) says, “We will throw you in fire”.  “Yes very well” (says Abraham - علیه السلا م ).  A child is born to him after a long time.  “Abraham” (commands Allah - سبحانه و تعا لی), “throw this child in desolate wilderness where there is neither a man nor a trace of human being, no food and water”.  “Yes – fine” (comes the answer).  The child grows and attains grace and charm.  “Abraham if you consider Me as friend, cut the throat of this child with a knife” (commands Allah - سبحانه و تعا لی).  “Yes, appropriate. (Comes the answer from Abraham - علیه السلا م ). 

For Moses (علیه السلا م), love and affection is his necklace.  Moses ( علیه السلا م ) prays  رَبِّ أَرِنِي أَنْظُرْ إِلَيْكَ [ O my Lord, I have heard Your voice, please also show me Your Face (Countenance)”.(Al-A'raaf -143).  Allah ( سبحانه و تعا لی ) ordains. لَنْ تَرَانِي [You will not be able to see Me].  (A’raaf - 143).  وَلَـٰكِنِ انظُرْ إِلَى الْجَبَلِ فَإِنِ اسْتَقَرَّ مَكَانَهُ فَسَوْفَ تَرَانِي [ Fine.  Gaze at the mountain.  If it stays with its fortress, then you will be able to see Me.]  (A’raaf - 143).  فَلَمَّا تَجَلَّىٰ رَبُّهُ لِلْجَبَلِ جَعَلَهُ دَكًّا وَخَرَّ مُوسَىٰ صَعِقًاHis Beloved flings His refulgence on the mountain of his (Moses' - علیه السلا م ) ego and shreds it into pieces.  Moses ( علیه السلا م ) screams and falls down unconscious.  Allah ( سبحانه و تعا لی ), who is the sustainer of Moses ( علیه السلا م ) when flung His refulgence on the mountain of his ego,  Moses (علیه السلا م ) falls down screaming.

Jesus (علیه السلا م) is lost in divine Unity and is so much unconcerned of every thing except God that some people described him (erroneously) as “the son of God.”

Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) has the comprehensiveness of divine supreme attributes.  When the time for Salah (Islamic Manifestative Submission) approaches, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) asks:  ارحنا يا بلال‬‎   [ O'Bilal, call for Salah so that I perform and get the hearty repose.  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said - قرة عيني في الصلاة  [The comfort of my eyes is in Salah] (Nasai).   Since in it, is Allah’s ( سبحانه و تعا لی ) vision.  The infant son, Ibrahim (علیه السلا م) dies, not a word of restlessness comes out of mouth, but honors the right of eyes. Tears flow from eyes and the Companions submit:  O Prophet of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), you and weeping!  He says:  This is a blessing. Meaning, “here the right is given to affection.  Gives scorpion its right and when its stings, say: Oh!  Don’t you differentiate between the doer and non-doer of Salah.  There is a time when water gushes out of his fingers. 

The vocational invocators are first benefited from Hadhrat Nooh (عليه السلا م), the first acquire light from  him and then from Hadhrat Ibrahim (عليه السلا م), then from hadhrat Moosa (عليه السلا م) and then from hadhrat Isa (عليه السلا م) and finally from ‘the comprehensive veracity of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

It has been described above that the one who is a Muhammadi is also Aadami, Noohi, Ibrahimi, Moosavi, Eisavi and Muslim. These are known as subtleties (لطائف).  Every subtlety’s divine light has a color, a place and the vocational invocators become colorful from the divine lights of the Prophets.  One who is a Muhammadi, he remains colorless.  You may be aware that white is called colorless but it has comprehensives of all the seven colors.  Similarly every Muslim, if he is a real Muslim, and in whose heart the light of faith is enlightened, will keep every thing. لا اله الا الله محمد رسول الله

Gentlemen, whatever the people of hypnotism and mesmerism show and do,  are all the spectacles of their anima (نفس).  The religious person's is the true follower of the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  His approach is towards Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) and,  peace of mind and satisfaction of anima is his distinctive feature.  Atheist will not get this divine bestowal.

 

PRINCIPLES OF ISLAM

(i)  Monotheism (توحید) -  This is the primary principle.  The religion is based on the comprehension of this principle.  All religious conflicts in the world are because of non acceptance of monotheism.  See there is always a head of the family who runs the chores of the family.  In the locality, there is a head.  In the country, there is a king or a president of a government.  Therefore, to run the cosmos, do you not think that there is need for an absolute ruler.

If there were many gods, and none has a right to oppose, then except one all others are useless.  If anyone could object, then what is the meaning of having an Almighty who cannot rule.  With us to have certitude in Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) and believe in Him as ‘the only One who does not have peers’ is natural and factual certainty.

(ii) Affection (محبت) -  The entire world stands on the foundation of affection.  If there was no affection, the world would have been a heap of cloud and dust. There would have been no trees, no mountains and no human beings.  The affection comes naturally, as well as by intent.  Parents have natural affection towards their children.  The affection is developed also for some interest.  Affection is also evolved to get some benefit and pleasure like the servants love their masters.  Affection is for the sake of Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) also. The love of Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) is a permanent thing and the affection for everything else is transitory.  Once the motive is achieved, people tend to forget each other.

(iii)  Obligatory Cautiousness (فرض شناسی) -  Man is bounded in rights and duties.  It is in Hadith - Your Nafs has a right on you and your wife has a right on you.  Therefore, you cannot commit suicide and also you cannot keep your hands and legs idle.  

It is in Hadith -  The son of Hadhrat Abu Juhaifa (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) narrates  from his father that when the Apostle made fraternity between Salman (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) and Abu Darda (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) and once Salman (رضي الله تعالى عنه) saw Abu Darda’s (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) wife in a dirty grimy state and asked her how she was doing.  She said:  Salman (رضي الله تعالى عنه), your brother does not have anything to do with this world.  Abu Darda (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) appeared in the meantime and he got food readied for Salman (رضي الله تعالى عنه) and when the food was ready, he invited Salman (رضي الله تعالى عنه) asking:  Brother, please take the food as I am fasting.’  Salman (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) said:  I will not eat until you partake from the food. Abu Darda (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) broke his fast and ate along with Salman (رضي الله تعالى عنه).  Early in the night when Abu Darda (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) stood for Salah. Salman (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) said:  Brother, sleep for now.  He slept.  When he wanted to get up again after some time, Salman (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) said: You continue sleeping.  When the last part of the night was left, Salman (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) asked him to get up for Salah.  When he completed the Salah, Salman (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) said to Abu Dardah (رضئ الله تعالی عنه): ‘Brother, your Sustainer Almighty has a right on you.  Your anima (corporeal self) has a right on you.  Your wife has a right on you.  Thus, you should fulfill your obligations to all who have a right on you.  In the morning Abu Darda (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) appeared in front of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and repeated all that happened the previous night.  The Apostle said:  What Salman (رضي الله تعالى عنه) said is correct. (Bukhari - 3-189)

Gentlemen, the human being is associated with the rights of his friend and foe, wife and husband, parents and children.  He fulfills everyone’s right.  There are rights of the king and the subjects.  Treat everyone with kindness. If they are losing their rights, (try to help them and) you do not destroy their rights.  Obligatory Cautiousness is an important principle and do not let it slip out of your hand.

(iv) Moderation (اعتدال) -  Consider the body temperature phenomenon of human beings.  The mercury should remain constant at 98.4 degrees Fahrenheit.  If the temperature exceeds, it is fever and if it recedes, it is weakness.  The result in both cases is potential loss of life. 

It is in Quran اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ [ O' Lord, lead us to the right path.] (Al-Fatiha - 5)

The deviated routes are many and the straight path is only one and it is located in the middle.  All straight lines coincide with each other.  The definition of Muslims is, they are a group of moderate people. 

It is in Quran -  أُمَّةً وَسَطًا  [ Moderate Ummah ] (Al-Baqara - 143).

It is in Quran  - لَا تَظْلِمُونَ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ  [ Do not oppress others and do not let yourself be oppressed.]  (Al-Baqarah - 279).

It is in Quran - وَأَقِيمُوا الْوَزْنَ بِالْقِسْطِ وَلَا تُخْسِرُوا الْمِيزَانَ  [ Establish weight with justice and fall not short in the balance.  (Ar-Rahmaan - 9)

It is in Hadith -  Anas (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) Narrated. Three persons approached the wives of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and started inquiring about the prayers, worship, etc. of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). When they were told about it, they considered it to be less.  Then they said:  Whither the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and whither us. Allah (سبحانه و تعا لی) has protected him from all the possible preceding and following sins. (Therefore neither could they reach the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) nor is there a possibility of sin to appear from the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ).  Thus, one of them said that he will always spend the night in Salah.  The other said:  I will keep fast all everyday and will never break it, else I will keep a permanent fast.  The other said:  I will not go near women, thus will never marry.  Then the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) came to them and said:  Are you the people who were telling things this way?  By God, I am more fearful of God than you are and am more pious than you.  But I fast and break it (when the time is over).  I perform Salah and sleep and also marry women.  Thus whoever objects to my Sunnah and my way, he is not one among my people. ]  (Bukhari, Muslim, Mishkaat).

(v)  Equality (مساوات)  -     It is in Hadith االناس سواسيه كااسنان المشط - لافرق بين عربي ولا اعجمي الا بالتقوى    [ Meaning – people are equal like the teeth of a comb. There is no difference between Arabs and non-Arabs except in piety.]   During Salah,  all Muslims, irrespective of their riches or poverty, stand side by side in line, joining their shoulders. 

The first one who was arrogant was Satan  who considered himself better than the human being.   It is in Quran أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِنْهُ خَلَقْتَنِي مِنْ نَارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِنْ طِينٍ  [ I am superior to him as You (Allah) have crated me with fire and him (Adam) with clay, mud.]  (Al-A’araaf - 12).  Therefore, I have become superior.  The conflict of caste system was started by Satan. There is no discrimination in Islam on the basis of color, language, nationality or country.  The standard of distinction is virtue and good deeds.

It is in Quran -  إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ [ Certainly the righteous in front of Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) is the one who is more virtuous.] (Al-Hujuraat - 13)

(vi) Division of Wealth (تقسیم دولت) -  Another primary principle of Islam is the division of wealth.  With some nations it is only the elder son who is the inheritor of the entire wealth of the father.  With some, the wealth is held up as a common national thing.  With some, women cannot own anything. With some, only one person is the owner of the entire wealth.  The people are free to earn as well as free in not parting with their riches with anyone else.  Thus, somewhere it is feudalism and somewhere it is communism or socialism.  What happens in socialism?  The house belongs to the government, food belongs to the government, clothing belongs to the government, life belongs to the government and even wife and children belong to the government.  Nothing belongs to the people.

Shaikh has given an important description about slavery here.  He says:  Show me what is slavery?  Wielding no authority and not owning anything, is it not slavery?  Before there were few slaves, now the entire nations are slaves!  Also, the nations who are following socialism, the whole nation is a group of slaves. There are a few masters, but the rest of the nation is slave. 

There is absolute freedom in Islam for rightful earning, but it is obligatory to give Zakat (Islamic income tax).  Also,   after the death of the person, his inheritance is distributed among his heirs.  There is a right of the neighbor also in Islam. Assistance to the poor is mandatory by law as also it is morally necessary.  During the Eid festivities of Ramadhan, the well-to-do has to give Fitra (alms) to the poor.  In Eid ul Azha, which is celebrated on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah every year, one third of the sacrificial meat has to be given to the poor.

(vii)  Respect for the living being (احترام ذی حیات) -  The respect for the living being is also an important Islamic principle.  You cannot cremate any living being.  Even the (poisonous) snakes, scorpions and he blood sucking bugs cannot be burnt alive.  During war, women, children and also men who are leading their lives in recluse are not touched. No one can commit suicide. Let alone the animals, you cannot burn the trees without any reason.  As against this, in so called modern civilization, you can annihilate anyone without exception, by atom bombs, hydrogen bombs and the like (chemical, cluster and annihilating carpet bombings).

(viii)  Establishment of peace (قیام امن) -  Establishment of peace is another important principle of law in Islam.  To create mischief and disturbance is not appropriate in Islam. 

It is in Quran -  وَاللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَسَادَ [ And  Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) does not life mischief.] (Al-Baqara - 205) 

It is in Quran -  وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَشَدُّ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ [ Creating disturbance is worse than a murder. ] (Al-Baqara - 191) 

It is in Quran -  وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ [ Fight with mischief mongers and disturbance creators until the strife is rooted out.] (Al-Baqara - 193)

It is in Quran -   وَلَا تَسُبُّوا الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ فَيَسُبُّوا اللَّهَ عَدْوًا بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ  [ People who consider others as God, leaving Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) , do not abuse them because they may in turn abuse Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) in their ignorance.]  (Al-An'aam - 108)

What are the reasons for trouble?  To abuse others, indulging in self pride, fornication, wine drinking, gambling, etc. are all the chief causes of trouble.  Peace will prevail in the world if you refrain from these evil deeds.  The important aim of Islam is the establishment of peace.  Islam does not tolerate disturbance in the society.  If you act upon these few basic principles of Islam, your faith will become good and you will be successful in both the worlds.  Muslims or non-Muslims, these principles are equally good for all.

(ix)  The Supplication (دعا) -  The last and important basic principle of Islam is the supplication and imploration with Allah (سبحانه و تعالی).  Man may strive hard, but success of his efforts in in the hands of Allah (سبحانه و تعالی).  We supplicate on this principle only. 

 رَبَّنَا لَا تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِنْ نَسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا -  رَبَّنَا وَلَا تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْرًا كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِنَا -  رَبَّنَا وَلَا تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ -  وَاعْفُ عَنَّا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا  - أَنْتَ مَوْلَانَا - فَانْصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ  [ O'Our Lord!  You have provided our sustenance and have raised us.  Now do not take us to account, and catch us on our forgetfulness and oversights.  Our Lord! Do not put us under the same circumstances as you have subjected our elders to severe tests and made them suffer from misfortune. Our Lord!  Do not put us under the pressure which we are not able to bear.  Erase our sins, cover us in your protection and bestow Your Mercy on us. You are our Lord and can do anything you wish.  But we are  faithfuls of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Give us power over our enemies, make us victorious and do not disgrace us in their hands.] (Al-Baqara - 286)

 

It is a fact that the ignorant will ask from the wise.  The illiterate will ask form the knowledgeable and also believe their counsel.  The imperative in this context is also the same.

It is in Quran - فَاسْأَلُوا أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِن كُنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ [ Ask from the knowledgeable if you are unaware of anything). (Al-Anbiya - 7)

Look (اِسْئَلُوْا) is an order which points out towards necessity.  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) says - 'Why did you not ask if you were not aware of it. (Hadith).  The remedy for one who is unaware and helpless is definitely to inquire.  This is the rule in the whole world.  People depend upon the experts and until they acquire expertise, they emulate others.  When they come across difficulties and feel helpless, they are forced to emulate others.  Ignorance and self-conceit leads one to destruction. 

Mathematics is an ordinary subject but you have to be under the supervision of a teacher for a long time.  He shows your mistakes and wrong answers and after a great deal of hard work, you will be able to write correct answers.  In the absence of knowledge of necessary and endowed religious subjects, the claim of having independent opinions in religious matters is not the sign of a sensible person.  You claim yourself to be Ahl al Hadith, (a deviant sect) but are unable to read even 4 lines of Arabic text properly?   Some unsound and deficient person told you that such and such a thing is in Hadith and you began to believe him without any investigation and research.

Looking at one or two translated books of Ahadith, neither aware of the encyclopedia of the narrators, nor of the rules of abrogator and abrogated and having no strength to deduce or compare things in religious books, people start considering themselves as interpreters and start shooting down arrows on sincere scholars.  You have to face Allah (سبحانه و تعالی). 

It is in Quran - فَاسْأَلُوا أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِن كُنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ [ Ask from the knowledgeable if you are unaware of anything). (An-Nahl - 43).   Acting upon this verse and keeping quiet with a cool heart is a lot safer.

In the issue of interpretation, there is a lot more misunderstanding.  People say that all Islamic interpreters have passed away and now there cannot be any Islamic interpreter.  This is absolutely a wrong notion.  The door of interpretation has never been closed; nor will it ever be closed.  This is to restrict Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالی) blessings, Mercy and His bestowal.  However, the excellence among people in the subject is a rarity now.  Also the long distance of time from the advent of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), ill mannerism of the people and scarcity of means has compounded this problem.    

How many types of knowledgeable people are there to provide solutions in the issues of Sharia and what type of knowledge is required by all these scholars?
 
Arabic literature is essentially required and for Arabic literature, the knowledge of grammer (نحو), Syntax (صرف), philology (لغت), idiomatic usage (محاورت) and rhetoric (معانی بیان) are required.  They need to know about Quran and its Exegesis (تفسیر) and Principles of Exegesis (اصول تفسیر).  The knowledge of Ahadith; for it, its principles, the knowledge of encyclopedic classification of narrators (اسماء رجال) is necessary.  Islamic Jurisprudence (فقہ) and its Principles are also required to be known.  Logic, the issues of consensus of Muslim opinion, and the differences of opinions of A'imma are required to be understood.  They also need to understand the new issue of their times, the intrinsic requirements and objectives of the religion, common law of the land, and the general public trend.  Thus dozens of issues are required to be known before attempting to extract a rule of Sharia in a given case.
 
How many types of interpreters (مجتھدین) are there and what are their ranks?
 
The Absolute Interpreter (مجتھد مطلق) -  He is a person of Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence.  His approach of deducing things and reasoning is unique3 and exclusive.  Like Imam-e-Azam Abu Hanifa (رضي الله تعالى عنه).
 
The Interpreter of the School of Thought (مجھتھد فی المذہب)  -   He is greatly influenced by Shaikh.  At times he differs from his Shaikh in principles; though it happens rarely.  In related issues, he deduces things as per his interpretations.  He can find solutions to any new thing faced by the people.  He considers minutely on Ahadith and if some Hadith is proved correct, he gives edicts differing with his Shaikh and lead people towards rightful deeds.
 
The Interpreter of Preference (صاحب ترجیح) - He gives preference in the sayings of various A'imma in a specific issue.  As he has less strength of distinguishing things as compared to the above interpreters, he gives preference to one saying from among the sayings of the above interpreters.
 
The Interpreter of the Issue (مجھتہد فی المسئلہ) - He is a man of deduction of things.  He cannot independently innvestigate from the Quyran and Ahadith but from the integral principles of his religious school of thought he deduces solutions to the individual issues and fractional commandments.
 
The Mufti (مفتی) - Some people are Muftis who deduce things from the books of Islamic Jurisprudence.  As a matter of fact,  Muftis are only narrators.  Their individual effort is only to an extent that they go through the books and bring out the answer in a given issue.  In their view,the door to investigation and deduction (تحقیق و استنباط) has been closed.  They consider every new thing as prohibited and unlawful. These type of people are there among the followers of  all four schools of thought.

There is another misunderstanding which is generally expressed about Hanafi, Shafa’ee, Maliki and Hambali schools of jurisprudence, saying that these are personal emulations (تقلید شخصی).  This notion is absolutely incorrect.  These are four families or schools.  Everyone’s way of deducing of imperatives is different.  Investigations are carried out at different intervals.  Some of the pupils of the Imams have differed in certain principles from their teachers after their own investigations because at that time the circumstances were different.  In implementation of the rules also there have been notable differences in individual actions.  In the later times, some knowledgeable people, after extensive research, have differed with the Imam and have given edicts (in view of the requirements of their times).  All these research materials are gathered at one place and are (printed in books and) which are regarded as Islamic edicts (فتاوىَ).  In all school of thoughts, the practice is similar.  In these edicts, the research material and the researchers’ details are all mentioned.  This is individual way of doing things but everyone’s heart is bowed in front of the awesomeness of Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) and everyone is steadfast in his pursuit of holding on to the divine rope.  To create conflicts and brawls in the issues of difference of opinions is not the work of the literate people.

It is in Quran -  وَلِكُلٍّ وِجْهَةٌ هُوَ مُوَلِّيهَا ۖ فَاسْتَبِقُوا الْخَيْرَاتِ [Everyone has a direction in which he turns. You strive and be quick is doing good deeds.] (Al-Baqara - 148) 

Now left is squandering (تلفیق);  without doing any research, picking up of a thing from one Imam and another from another Imam. The work of this type of person in the opinion of all the Imams is spurious (refutable).  Meaning the refutation is because of his actions which are contrary to all Imams' interpretation as he is not following any one of them.  His example is like a person who has taken one medicine from the allopathy doctor, one from homeopathy, one from Unani and one from Vedicmedicines and he eats the mixture of all of these.  It is evident that this type of compound is not appropriate with any of the above doctors. Everyone has a specific way of treatment and this compound is against all their medications.  Similarly, the man who is trying to follow all the imams is an illiterate and selfish person.  He is enslaved by his own wishes and talks about Imams for namesake only.

The supreme and elevated evidences of the verse (أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ) are the Companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and the pupils of the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) who are the sources of teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) for the Ummah.  Apostatizing them is like erasing the Holy Quran and Hadith altogether and razing the foundations of religion.  You claim to be a Muslim and at the same time you try to destroy the foundation of religion.  The Holy Quran reached us through whom?  It reached us from the Companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), particularly from Hadhrat Uthman (رضئ الله تعالی عنه), Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه), Hadhrat Zayd bin Thabit (رضئ الله تعالی عنه), Hadhrat Abdullah bin Mas’ud (رضئ الله تعالی عنه), Hadhrat Ubay bin Ka’ab (رضئ الله تعالی عنه).  Who narrates the Holy Quran from Hadhrat Salman, Hazrat Miqdaad and Hazrat Abudharr (رضي الله تعالى عنهم)?  They are all Muslims.  If you insist upon the narration of Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه), then the Holy Quran will become in-frequented narration (احاد). How will it remain continuous narration (متواتر)?  Muslims’ distinctive holding (سرمایہ ناز) is the continuous narration of the Holy Quran.  When you destroy it and try to look at it dubiously and you yourself start believing in lessening or exceeding its contents, then what is left in your hand; it is neitherh the Holy Quran nor its absolute authenticity.

Now listen to the state of the Ahadith (with Shias).  Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) gave certain commandments to women in their gathering in which the addressees were women.  All these are cancelled!  Apart from Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه), the narration of other Companions are incredible.  Then how many Ahadith are left which have been narrated by Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه)?  The narrations expressed in sermons by Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) and and other Imams standing on the pulpit of the mosque were all for subterfuge (تقیّہ).  (اَلعِياذُو بِاالله). Now where is Hadith and where is the religion?  With this view, the teachings of the Prophet go into non-existence. Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) is supreme, Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) is great.  (What these ignorant people talk have no bearings on the religion at all).

What are the stages of destruction of Islam?

First of all affection for members of the Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is emphasized which is the common issue for all Muslims.  Then from the Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) household, his pious wives are separated, whose distinction as the members of Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) family is described in the Holy Quran.  In Arabic and in all other languages of the world, the reference of ‘the person of home or house’ is made for the wife only.  Then comes the issue of preeminence among the Companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  Then comes the issue of the Caliphate.  Then is the issue of mourning for the martyrdom of Hadhrat Imam Hussain (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) and the description of the various tyrannies of Karbala.  Then is the issue of the conflicts among the Companions and then comes the issue of leveling of charges of apostasy towards the Companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), then comes the issue of subterfuge (تقیّہ) and on it is the death of the religion (of those who involve in such things - Shias).

Shaikh says that "now, I will shed some light on the above issues.  Perhaps a person of intelligence, wisdom and rightful sense is enlightened and feels elated by understanding them."

The meaning of the Arabic word (آل) and (اہل) (family, descendants and followers) have the same meanings.  Rather the diacritical mark of (~) of (آل) has become the (ه).  Thus, the diminutive form of (آل)   is (اُهَيْلٌ).   The meaning of (اَلَ) (يَؤُل) and (اَوْلاً) is ‘to return.’  (آل) is that person who is subordinated to a person who is his antecedent and recourse.’  The word (آلِ فرعون) is there in the Holy Quran in the meaning of subordinates. Thus in this meaning, (آلِ محمد مصطفى صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) are all the Muslims who are subordinates (تابعین) of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  The nearness of this (آلِيَتْ) with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) will increase, in proportion to the increase in the sincerity of subordination and return towards him.   The pious man’s return (رُجوع) and his subordination towards the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is more, therefore (آلِ محمد مصطفى صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم كُلُّ تَقِيٍّ) has also come. 

Bani Hashim have the proximity of relationship with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  Therefore, sacrificial offering to them by other Muslims are forbidden.  Thus, they are also (آلِ محمد مصطفى صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  The descendants of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) are from Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) and Sayyeda Fatima (رضي الله تعالى عنها) and from Hadhrat Imam Hassan and Imam Hussain (رضي الله تعالى عنهما).  They are (آلِ رسول صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  The house of daughter and son-in-law is separate.  Therefore, Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) took them into his cloak to emphasize that they are distinguished and included in (آلِ محمد صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  Ummahatul Momineen (the respected wives of the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) are a part of his family, which is proved from the Holy Quran.  For the wife of Prophet Ibrahim (عليه السلا م),  (اَهْلَ اَلْبَيْتِ) has been used in the Holy Quran.  The verses before it and after it in this context in the Holy Quran are for the wives of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  Remember it well that for the word (اہل) the personal pronouns is always in plural masculine gender.  To Ummul Momineen, Umme Salma (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) (the wife of Prophet Muhammad - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said - اَنْتِ عَلَى الْخَيْرِ [You are a part of the verse of purification (آيَتِ تَطْهير)].  To exclude the pious wives of the Prophets from the context of the verse of purification is oppression on the Holy Quran.  How far this verse -  يَا نِسَاءَ النَّبِيِّ لَسْتُنَّ كَأَحَدٍ مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ [O' Wives of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), you are not like other women ] (Al-Ahzaab - 32) denies the exclusiveness of the wives of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)?   The verse of purification, to these people (who differentiate between the Kinsfolk of the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) is only to prove the chastity.  They say since Sayyeda Fatima (رضي الله تعالى عنها) was a woman, she cannot be the Caliph.  In view of some temporary estrangements and mutual differences between her and Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه), she is not innocent (معصوم) also, therefore, she is not included in the purview of the verse of purification.  If Hadhrat Hassan Mujtaba (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) is innocent (معصوم), then  Muawiya's (رضي الله تعالى عنه) taking over the reign of Islamic nation will be justified.  Therefore, Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) is also neither innocent nor is included in the purview of the verse of purification. 

There is no end to their arguments.

Let us now see among the descendants of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as to how many they accept as descendants.  Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) had 4 daughters, they do not accept 3 of them.  The way they accept the fourth one has been mentioned above.  They do not consider her to be innocent.  In Hadhrat Ali’s (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) sons, Hadhrat Imam Muhammad bin ‘Ali (رضي الله تعالى عنه) is also there to whom they refer as Muhammad bin Hanfiya and how bad they talk about him as per their habit is well known.  They do not accept the descendant lineage of Hadhrat Imam Hassan (رضئ الله تعالی عنه).  They do not accept Imam zayd (رضي الله تعالى عنه)  who is the son of Hadhrat Imam Zayn ul A’abideen (رضي الله تعالى عنه).  They do not accept Imam Ismail (رضي الله تعالى عنه), the son of Hadhrat Imam Ja’afar Sadiq (رضي الله تعالى عنه);  towards whom the sect of Ismailia is imputed.  The accept only 12 Imams and carry on with their foul-mouthness towards other Imams (the descendants of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  The same foul-mouthness is meted out to other Caliphs and Companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  Is this what you call love of the family and descendants of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)?  (معاذالله)

After it, is the issue of preeminence (تفضيل).  Sayyeda Fatima (رضي الله تعالى عنها) is a direct descendant or the part of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) ( جُزِّ رسول  - meaning most intimately related).  This honor is not enjoyed by the grandsons of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) or Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddique (رضئ الله تعالی عنه).  The pious wives of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) are the mothers of all believers.  It is commanded in the Holy Quran - وَأَزْوَاجُهُ أُمَّهَاتُهُمْ  [The wives of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم  are the mothers of believers] (Al-Ahzaab - 33) .  Reverence of mother is essential in every religion and in every nation. 

To assist apostleship in its initial stages, to actively participate in the propagation of the message of Islam, to take up the reins of Islam after the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), to maintain peace and tranquility, to safeguard Muslims against apostasy after the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), are the works of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ الله تعالی عنه).  Organization of Muslims is the work of Hadhrat ‘Umar (رضئ الله تعالی عنه).  To spread the correct message of the Holy Quran is the work of Hadhrat Uthman (رضئ الله تعالی عنه).  To enter the battlefields with sword and to enlighten people’s hearts with divine light is the work of Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه).  Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) has bestowed some people with exclusive features.  No one can be regarded as exclusive in all the aspects put together.  The status of the individual is raised in the audience of Almighty in proportion to his service to Islam.

After it is the issue of the caliphate.  It is not necessary that a Prophet should also be a king.  It is in the Holy Quran - قَالُوا لِنَبِيٍّ لَّهُمُ ابْعَثْ لَنَا مَلِكًا [ The people said to the Prophet to supplicate Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) to send for them a king.] (Al-Baqara - 246).  But Prophet Solomon (عليه السلا م) was rewarded with both, Prophethood as well as the kingdom.  In the last years of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) some worldly government has also come to Muslims. There is no importance for the teachings of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to these people.  Their focus is only the attainment of worldly things and its power.  They think the family of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) did not get the authority to rule, that is why they were deprived of the caliphate.

Let us investigate what is Caliphate? The word ‘khalifah’ is taken from (the word) ‘khalf’ (who is behind). Meaning, this is the one who follows and accomplishes the works of  the one who is ahead of him.  The one who describes  the divine secrets, helps in purification of minds of the people, who corrects peoples’  notions and educates them the inner values of spiritual significance of Islam is, without doubt, a virtuous person, receiving the blessings of Allah (سبحانه و تعا لی) and His Apostle Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and who may be awarded with Wilaya.  These people are true followers of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and his companions. 

The one who serves the Apostleship (follows the Apostle of Allah(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) from the beginning till his last breath in all walks of life, what praise can be showered upon him!   He is the true follower of  the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  The best examples in the context are  Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddique(رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), Hadhrat Umar Ibn Khattab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), Hadhrat Uthman Ibn Affan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Hadhrat Ali Ibn Abi Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) who are regarded as Khulafa-e-Rashideen.

 Some people say that Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) had given caliphate   to Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) in his lifetime and said: (مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَعَلِيُّ مولَاهُ).  The meaning of the Arabic word (مَوْلَا) is relative, affectionate, assistant, ally, etc.  Where is the elucidation for caliphate (in the Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) aforementioned saying).  The Abbasids say that Hadhrat ‘Abbas (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) (the paternal uncle of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is the relative and real inheritor of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  The grandsons of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  have maternal relationship with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and Sayyeda Fatima (رضي الله تعالى عنها) is a woman.  Therefore only the descendants of Hadhrat ‘Abbas (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) can be caliphs rather than anyone else.  Also the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) had foretold about the caliphate of the children of Hadhrat ‘Abbas (رضئ الله تعالی عنه). 

It is in Hadith - Hadhrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) said that during his mortal disease, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) asked his attendants to bring a pen and an ink bottle so that he would write something by which people will not be misled after him.  Hadhrat ‘Umar (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) said that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is overwhelmed with the ailment because he was fainting repeatedly.  You have the Holy Quran, the book of Allah (سبحانه و تعالی), which is sufficient.  The people of the house became divided on the issue and started differing themselves in their opinions.  Someone insisted to bring the pen and ink bottle and someone else said what Hadhrat ‘Umar (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) is saying is true.  When there was increase in noise and people differed with each other, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) asked them to go away. (Bukhari, Muslim and others)

 Bani ‘Abbas think that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) wanted to write about the caliphate of Bani Abbas (descendants of Hadhrat ‘Abbas -  رضئ الله تعالی عنه  – the paternal uncle of the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  The Shia think that it was the caliphate document for Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه), which the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) wanted to write. 

Shaikh says that these all are speculations but the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) did not mention anyone’s name and Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) did not oppose the opinion of Hadhrat ‘Umar (رضئ الله تعالی عنه).  Also the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) did not emphasize any direct order.  If it was a revelation, then the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) would have acted upon the verse -   بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ [ Convey what is being sent to you. ] (Al-Maaida - 67)

It is in Quran -  الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي [ Today I have completed for you your religion and have completed My bestowal upon you.] (Al-Maaida -3)

Now let us review the definitive caliphate. 

It is in Hadith - Narrated Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضي الله تعالى عنها) the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)   said call your father Abu Bakr (رضي الله تعالى عنه) and brother ‘Abdul Rahman (رضي الله تعالى عنه), so that I write (a document) because I fear that somebody who is wishing may wish and someone may declare that he is eminent, whereas Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) and His believers deny any one else other than Abu Bakr (رضي الله تعالى عنه).  (Ahmad, Muslim, Kanz, vol. 6, pg. no. 138) 

It is in Hadith - Narrated Abdul Rahman bin Abu Bakr (رضي الله تعالى عنه), the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, bring to me an ink bottle so that I write a paper after which you will not be misled. And said: Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) and His believers deny anyone else, except Abu Bakr (رضي الله تعالى عنه).  (Kanz, Vol. 6, pg. no. 139)

It is in Hadith - Narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Ali (رضي الله تعالى عنه) the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, I supplicated three times with Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) to give priority to you, but Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) denied the request except for Abu Bakr (رضي الله تعالى عنه).  (Ibn Asaker, Kanz, Vol. 6 pg. no. 14). 

It is in Hadith -   When the foundation of the mosque was being laid, first the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) placed a stone, then Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ الله تعالی عنه), then Hadhrat ‘Umar (رضئ الله تعالی عنه).  Then the Prophet said - هَؤُلاَ ءِ خُلَفَاءٌ مِنْ بَعْدِي [ They are caliphs after me.) (Tareekhul Khulafa by Suyuti) 

It is in Hadith - It is narrated by Anas Ibn Malik (رضي الله تعالى عنه) that he was sent to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) by Bani Mustalaq to inquire, to whom they should give Zakat amount after him.  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, give to Abu Bakr (رضي الله تعالى عنه).  (Al-Hakim who said it is Sahih)

It is in Hadith - Narrated by Huzaifa (رضي الله تعالى عنه) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said that I am not sure for how long I will be among you.  Therefore, after me, you be obedient to Abu Bakr and Omar (رضي الله تعالى عنهما (Tirmidhi)

It is in Hadith - Jubair ibn Mutim (رضي الله تعالى عنه) narrated that a woman came to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), who instructed her to return to him again. She said, “What if I came and did not find you?” as if she wanted to ask, “If I found you dead?” The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, “If you should not find me, go to Abu Bakr (رضي الله تعالى عنه).” [Agreed upon]. 

During the conflict of Uhud, when the Muslims were facing defeat at nighttime, Abu Sufyan (the leader of the Quraish who had not yet become a Muslim) shouted in pitch dark:  Where in Ibn Abi Kabsha (Prophet Muhammad - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)?  Where is Ibn Abi Quhafa (Hadhrat Abu Bakr رضئ الله تعالی عنه)?  Where is Ibn al Khattab ( Hadhrat ‘Umar -  رضئ الله تعالی عنه)?.  When no reply was given, he shouted again:  (اُعْلُ هُبُلْ) (Success to Hubul the deity of  Pagans).  This shows that Abu Sufyan knew and it was a political foresightedness that after Hadhrat Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), the wok of Islamic governance will be carried out by Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) and after him, by Hadhrat ‘Umar (رضئ الله تعالی عنه). 

Shias show of chest beating in Muharram - The martyrdom of Imam   Hussain (رضئ الله تعالی عنه), is a perfect example of moral courage, truthfulness, bravery, fearlessness and refutation of subterfuge in this history of human civilization in this world.  Imam Hussain (رضي الله تعالى عنه) did not have any constraints.   If he had  given his allegiance on the hands of the evil minded Yazid, he would have been totally safe, but to be a subordinate of Yazid in all his acts was contrary to the Islamic Shariah.  If he had not supported the religion at that time, who else could have done that?

The people in the company of Imam Hussain (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) in Karbala were absolutely patient and grateful to Allah (سبحانه و تعالی). 

Shias practice of hitting of chest and tearing of clothes as a showoff, in grief of Imam Hussain's (رضي الله تعالى عنه) is contrary to the rules of the Shariah.  Islamic History shows that the claimants of love for the family of Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) wrote hundreds of letters to Imam Hussain (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) and called him to Koofa (in Iraq) and when he arrived there, they shifted their allegiance to Yazid’s army.  When the Imam was martyred, they declared themselves as ‘the people of repentance’ and started beating their chest on the sound of music and started singing dirges in musical tunes.  With the martyrdom of the elevated Imam, one learns the lesson of truthfulness, sacrificing one’s life on Islam and not of cowardice.  

 

بے  قراری  کا  نہ  نکلا  ایک لفظ
سامنے  تقدیر  کے  تھا  سر جھکا

آنکھ میں آنسو نہ تھا اور لب پہ آہ
آفریں    بر   اہل   بیت   مصطفیۖ

شیر  مادہ  در  دلیری   شیر   نر
کون شک کرتا ہے یا چوں وچرا

 

 At the time of the conflict of Karbala, there was no word of restlessness on the tongue of Hadhrat Hussain (رضئ الله تعالی عنه), as he had bowed down his head in front of destiny.  There was no tear in the eyes nor a word of grief on his lips.  Bravo the family of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), how brave they are!  Their courage is, like proverbial courage of, tigers.  Nobody has any scope of doubt in the steadfastness of Imam Hussain (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) in the protection of the religious values of Islam.

 

Conflicts among Companions -  There is general misunderstanding about the conflicts among the Companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  We will discuss here facts in the light of Quran and Ahadith.  

It is in Quran -  مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ [ Prophet Muhammad and the people with him are strict with the non-believers and merciful among themselves.] (Al-Fath - 29).

The Christians will stand witness to the Islamic feats of the Companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  Even Jews and Hindus will testify to it, because this fact is undeniable.  Against the attestation of the Holy Quran, the false stories are not acceptable.  This issue requires detailed description and is time consuming.  Therefore indicative details are being given here. 

Let the person be excessively virtuous because of his natural liking, but under the influence of the surrounding circumstances,  sometimes he feels helpless.  This type of person, even if he commits a mistake, it is known to be an interpretive mistake. 

It is in Quran -  لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا [ Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) gives hardship to a person as per his capacity.] (Al-Baqara - 284) 

By nature, some people regard their elders and give a lot of respect to the religious venerable beings.  Some people have their independent opinions and they form their opinions as per the limits of their knowledge.  They cannot do more than that anyway. 

Before the advent of Islam, Bani Ummayya were the rulers and politicians and Bani Hashim were the religious chiefs.  During the Muslim period, this thing continued.  Thus, their individual liking and differences of opinions were inevitable.  Hadhrat Abu Bakr and Hadhrat ‘Umar (رضي الله تعالى عنهما) did not belong to either Bai Ummayya or Bani Hashim.  Therefore, the mistakes of their subordinates were considered as individual mistakes of the personnel concerned.  Hadhrat Uthman (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) belonged to Bani Ummayya and Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) belonged to Bani Hashim.  People started associating the mistakes of the people working under them with the pious personality of the caliphs as these deputies belong to their tribe.  This opened the floodgates of trouble.

When the head of government is changed, his team also changes because he appoints principles, trusted and the people of the same viewpoint to work for him. The caliphate of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) was very close to the era of Prophethood.  In the times of Hadhrat Uthman and Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضي الله تعالى عنهما), the Muslim reign was expanded over a large area and wealth was abundant.  Various nations had become Muslims.  These new Muslims did not have purity of mind which prevailed during the caliphate of Hadhrat Abu Bakr and Hadhrat ‘Umar (رضي الله تعالى عنهما). 

At the time of war against the enemies, people are united.  In the times of peace, people tend to fight among themselves.  By nature, some people like democracy and some like kingship and they also fight among themselves but nobody says that they are the enemies of the country.  This is individual choice and individual opinion.  Similar were the conflicts of the Companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  Nobody can say that any one of the Companions was against Islam or the Prophet of Islam (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  

Apostatisation of the Pious Companions  -  Shaikh now discusses the issue of foul-moutness of certain people about the pious Companions of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). 

You ask any religious person of the world as to who are the people of the best character?  He will point towards the Companions of his prophet. 

The Shaikh asks here, what was the result of 23 years of preaching of Islam by Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)?  (Shia) say that Hazrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) and 2 or 3 Companions are sound Muslims.  Did these people consider that only 2 or 3 Muslims inhabit the face of the earth?  Who spread the message of Islam?  Was it done by non-Muslims? Shame!  Shame!  Who established Islamic government in the world and raised the Islamic flag (raised the standard of Islam?)?  Was it done by non-Muslims?  Shame!  Shame!  Who introduced the world to the Holy Quran and monotheism?  Was it done by non-Muslims?  Shame!  Shame!  Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه), married his daughter to whom?  Was it to a non-Muslim?  Shame! Shame!  Whom did he advise on the issues of administration?  To non-Muslims?  Shame! Shame!  Foul mouthness and using abusive language is an ideal prayer with whom?  It is with these people.  Shame! Shame!

It is in Quran - رَّضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ [ Allah (سبحانه و تعالی)  is pleased with Companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and they consent to the will of Allah (سبحانه و تعالی).]  (At-Tauba - 100)

In front of Allah (سبحانه و تعالی),  who is pleased with the Companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), what value your hatred carries?  These ill feelings are the result of  يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ  [ that He may enrage the unbelievers on account of them.]  (Al-Fath - 29). 

It is in Hadith -  Allah, Allah! Fear Him with regard to my Companions! Do not make them targets after me! Whoever loves them loves them with his love for me; and whoever hates them hates them with his hatred for me. Whoever bears enmity for them, bears enmity for me; and whoever bears enmity for me, bears enmity for Allah. Whoever bears enmity for Allah is about to perish." (Ali Qari in Shifa 2-92)

One who calls an ordinary Muslim an apostate, his apostasy comes back to him.  His example is like that of a fountain which comes out of itself and falls on itself. 

In a long and very famous sermon, Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) says:  Thus, whoever loves both Hadhrat Abu Bakr and Hadhrat ‘Umar (رضي الله تعالى عنهما) he loves me and whoever has grudge and hatred for them, has grudge and hatred for me and I am absolved of his responsibility.  If I had cautioned about it earlier I would have punished him (the guilty) severely.  If this type of complaints is brought to me again, the guilty will be treated as a slandered and mischief-monger and will be punished accordingly. (Kazul Ummal - vol 6,  page 370).

This shows, after the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), the most distinguished people among the Ummah are Hadhrat Abu Bakr and Hadhrat ‘Umar (رضي الله تعالى عنهما).

Sugterfuge (تقیہ):  In the end is the issue of subterfuge (تقیہ) on which is the end of Islam of these people.  If subterfuge was allowed, then why did Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) fought the wars of Jamal and Siffeen?  Why would Imam Hussain (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) become a martyr?  Why should Hadhrat Nafse Zakayya be martyred?  The nations’ guides and caliphs do not involve in subterfuge.  Truthfulness is mandatory on them.  They are the successors of  بَلِّغ مآ اُنْزِلَ اِلَيْك [ Convey what is sent to you.] (Al-Maaida - 67).   Subterfuge is forbidden for them.  These enemies of the family of the Prophet () have not left any stone unturned in disgracing Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه). 

They  (Shia) say that somebody beat Sayyeda Fatima (رضي الله تعالى عنها) in front of Hadhrat Ali (رضي الله تعالى عنه).   Shaikh says that he does not like to mention the name of this person because this allegation is an absolute falsehood.  And Hadhrat Ali (رضي الله تعالى عنه) neither   safeguarded nor supported her. She was pregnant and as a result of this, she had a miscarriage.  And   she died in this ailment in a few weeks.  They should feel ashamed of their blaming Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) of cowardice.  They should be afraid of Allah (سبحانه و تعالی)  for this type of filth coming out of their evil mouths.  The phenomenon of divine wonders Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) and subterfuge!  God forbid!  The fear of life to the bravest man!  (استغفرالله);  one of the most sacred venerable caliph and lies! (اَعوذُ بِا الله). In accusing one of the most dignified magnificent venerable of Islam, you should have some shame for this filth of your nasty mouth.  One wonders why this net of subterfuge was spread.  To create doubts in the minds about the Holy Quran and the Ahadith which were spread by the pious wives of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and his Companions.  The teachings of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) which could have been imparted to people also got entangled in the net of subterfuge.  Thus, with this bugbear,  an attempt was made to create doubt about the truthfulness of the family and the Companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), thereby to discredit Hadith, the Holy Quran and the teachings of the people of the house of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  One who has doubt on the creditworthiness of the family members of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  is far away from the religion of Islam.  He himself is a liar.  The issues of caliphate, well mannerism of one’s anima (نفس) and reformative correction of heart are very important. 

Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) had a brief period of caliphate after the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  Thus, from him came the  Sufi orders of Naqshbandiya, Quadriya, Shah Madaariya and Shattariya.  From Hadhrat ‘Umar (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) came the lineages of Farooqiya and Uwaisiya.  From Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) came the lineages of Quadriya, Chishtiya, Suharwardiya, Rafaa’iya, etc.  From Hadhrat Imam Hasan (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) came the lineages of Quadriya and Shadhliya.  From Hadhrat ‘Abdullah Makki (رضي الله تعالى عنه) came the lineages of Qalandariya.  As a matter of principle, the way Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) is the caliph, without doubt Hadhrat ‘Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) is also a caliph and Hadhrat Hasan (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) is also a caliph.  By accepting them as caliph, these people’s objective is not achieved.  They want total annihilation of the religion.  That, Allah-willing, has not happened earlier, neither will it happen in the future till the day of resurrection. It is in Quran إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ  [ We (Allah) have descended Quran and We only will preserve it.] (Al-Hijr - 9). Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) has taken the responsibility of preserving the religion of Islam. 

Who destroyed the Islamic governments?  These were the people. The sultanate of Abbasids, the Mughal Kingdom and in Indian states, the state of Mysore and the state of Shujauddaula, etc.  when you look at Islamic civilization, these are the people who have been the cause of disturbances and destruction throughout its history.


 

غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ

Ghayril maghdhoobi ‘alayhim waladh dhaalleen

 

The meanings of wrath (غَضَبٌ) is the ebullition (state of boiling) of blood of heart for vengeance (revenge) for doing harm.  The ebullition of the blood of heart is the primary state of wrath.  Therefore, here the purport is to punish and impose penalty which is the secondary state of wrath.  All personal intentions and spiritual attributes, like mercy (رحمت), bliss, exhilaration, wrath,  modesty, sense of honor, pretense, God’s pride, ridicule, have their initiations (beginnings) and finishing (ending) purposes.  Such terms, when used for Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) the purport is the purpose and consequence.  For example the purport of wrath is penalization and retribution.  The purport of modesty is to desist from the action, etc.


(ضَلَّ  يَضِلُّ  ضَلا لاً  فَهُواضَآلٌ)  all these mean (who have been) ‘led astray’.  The purport of (الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ) is (those who are) sinful and guilty, and the purport of (الضَّالِّينَ) is disbelievers and ignorant people.  The person whose capacity of understanding and learning is confounded and who is deviated from the right path is (ضَال).  And whose potential of action is vitiated is a transgressor, evil doer and deviated from the right path.  About an assassin, Allah (سبحانه و تعالی)  commands وَغَضَبَ اللهُ عَلَيْهِ (And Allah (سبحانه و تعالی)  has subjected him to His wrath).  About (the one who is) deviated and led astray, Allah (سبحانه و تعالی)  commands فَمَاذَا بَعْدَالْحَقِّ اِلاَّ الضَلالُ  (when you distance yourself from the truth, there is nothing except being led astray and deviation from the right path.)  The purport of (الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ) is the Jews.  For them Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) commands مَنْ لَّعْنَهُ اللهُ وَ غَضِبَ عَلَيْهِ  (On whom Allah (سبحانه و تعالی)  execrates  Wrath.  The purport of (الضَّالِّينَ) are the Christians.  About them Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) commands قَدْضَلُّوْا مِنْ قَبْلِ وَاَضَلُّوْا كَثِيْرًا (They led themselves astray and caused many others to go astray.)  Allah (سبحانه و تعالی)  has joined (الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ) with (غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ) in consideration of the fact that both the scales of optimism and apprehension, fear and hope are balanced.  Intermediating between fear and hope is the completion of faith.  First is the description of virtuous deads and good faith, then evil deeds and good faith and in the end is the malicious faith.  What is the analysis of (غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ).   It is the attribute of (الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ).  The word (غَيْرِ) meaning other,  is so ambiguous that being a proper noun in the possessive case, it is still not a proper noun.  If it is between the contraries, it is definable.  Like in  اَلْحَرَكَةُ غَيْرالسُّكُون  (Movement is different from motionlessness).  Also, in mobilization of the mental reason, if no established thing is referred, it remains a perceptive common noun.  Similarly, the purport of relative pronoun (اَلَّذيْ) are the un-established lot, meaning it is only for the mental reasoning.  With this, the established people are not referred. The word (عَلَيْهِمْ) meaning those, is the officiating nominative active agent of (الْمَغْضُوبِ) meaning who have been subjected to Allah’s wrath.

Gentlemen, consider your outlook, character and habits and your way of living.  Are you following (الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ) or abiding by people who are (غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ).  To utter the word of Allah (سبحانه و تعالی)  from your mouth, you say: Oh my God!  And instead of Syed Sultan, you call yourself S. Selton, and instead of Ghulam Muhammad you call yourself G.M.  Few years earlier, there were Muslims at least for namesake.  Now this also becoming a rarity.

 

خدا کو تمھاری غرض کیا پڑی ہے
جو تمکو خدا ہی سے بیزاریاں ہیں

Why should God Almighty sympathize with you when you yourself have strong aversions towards Him.

 

غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ – [And not the path of those who have been subjected to Your Wrath and the path of those who have gone astray.]

 

The children of the religious knowledgeable people, the children of the Shuyookh  are neither aware of the Holy Quran nor of Hadith.  They cannot even read a few verses of the Holy Quran properly.  But, they have the degrees of BA and MA.  This has brought about the destruction of the Muslim society.  Who will safeguard and support the religion?  Alas, how far the Muslims have gone weak in their attributes.  They do not have regard for the religion and concern for Muslim nation.  They do not even care to protect their own cultural identity.  See whom you are imitating, how they support their nation.  They are never willing to get absorbed in other nations.  They will end their lives, but will not allow disgrace to their nation.  The development of these weak character people does not serve any purpose to the Muslims.  These so-called educated people do not have any concern for Muslims and want to separate themselves from the nation.  They feel ashamed in calling themselves Indian Muslims.  They neither have the respect for the nation in their heart nor the emotion,  selflessness and sacrifice.  Their personal interest is always in front of them.  They are the spies of enemies.  The nation gets hurt from them more than it is with enemies.  Their existence is definitely not better than their non-existence.  These are the times of imitation.  Gold, silver, diamonds, pearl, silk, are all imitated.  Even food items like milk, ghee, juices are all imitated.  In this time of imitation if we find imitated Muslims, one should not be astonished.  May Allah (سبحانه و تعالی) save us from this era of imitation.

The issue of Hijab -  Another issue which is destroying the characteristics, culture and exclusiveness of Islam is the misunderstanding about the Hijab (veil) for women.  This issue is degrading the human being even to the state of animals.  People have differences of opinions and are divided on this issue.  The people who stick to the old principle, they realize the necessity of veil.  Some people have the European culture in their focus and they are most willingly prepared to accept the results of their walking on the footsteps of the Europeans.  There are others who wholeheartedly love the European culture, but would like to safeguard their children from its consequence. This is their pseudo-passion.  The act will bring its inevitable result which in turn will bring its necessities or essentialities.  It is not possible that the necessitated comes without its necessities.

The Shaikh says that first we establish the necessity of veil from the religious point of view, then we will describe the experiences of people in this context and in the end will unfold the results of the removal of the veil and their consequences.

Among the important principles of Islam are sense of honor, modesty, chastity and veil.  In the principles of Islam, the preample for ‘expedient’ (واجب) is expedient and preamble for forbidden (حرام) is forbidden.  Meaning that a thing which is Compulsory, is Compulsory from the beginning till the end and vice versa. It is not possible that you can deviate in the initial stages and try to hold on to the desired end result of the imperative.  Fornication and infanticide are one of the worst sins in Islam and are included in sins like killing of a human being.  In the principles of Islam, it is for the men to earn and for the women to take care of the family and children.  The woman’s primary concern is the preservation, welfare and training of her children.  In Islam a male considers his wife to be his life partner, his ultimate honor and respect.  A person who does not safeguard his wife even by putting at stake his life and belongings is considered to be a mean and wicked individual. 

It is in Quran -  وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَىٰ [ And sit at home like cultured women and do not go out in coquetry and style.] (Al-Ahzaab - 33)

It is in Quran -  وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَاعًا فَاسْأَلُوهُنَّ مِن وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ [ When you ask something from them, ask it from behind the veil.] (Ahzaab - 53)

It is in Quran -  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِن جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ ۚ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَن يُعْرَفْنَ فَلَا يُؤْذَيْنَ  [ O' Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), say to your wives and dughters and the wives of the believers that they cover themselves in veil from top to toe.  This is a less state that people know them they are the homely women and they prevent their way and trouble them. ] (Ahzaab - 59)

See, in the above verse the word is (عَلَيْهِنَّ), meaning the whole body.  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) asked Sayyeda Fatima (رضي الله تعالى عنها):  Tell me, what is best for a woman?  She replied:  That she should not see other men (non-relatives) and other men should not see her.  (on this reply), the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said:  Why not (she would reply this way), because she is my loving (beloved) daughter.

Now let us investigate how come and from where this misunderstanding of veil-lessness has come and what are its implications and essentialities.  Unnecessary, rather destructive education, women going to earn money, entry of heedless non-Muslim women into the homes of innocent Muslims, the ill gotten company of careless women, reading of obscene novels, the books on illegitimate sex which is indeed an evil literature, going to theatres and hotels where in unambiguous and obscene films and dances are shown.  Immodest and half-naked clothing, learning of modelling, acting and participation in beauty contests, false culture courage, mixing of boys and girls in dramas in schools and colleges, co-education and the like, the list is endless.  What is the result of all these?  Disappearance of faithful love between the husband and the wife, compulsory family planning, infanticide of illegitimate children, destroying the institution of marriage and living together without marriage, spreading of epidemics like AIDS and other related illnesses, popularity of gay and lesbianism, etc.  These are the things by which the nation is destroyed and the name of Islam will remain only for namesake while all its attributes will get annihilated. Shaikh says, in his opinion, the responsibility lies more on the immodest and shameless fathers and husbands who encourage their women towards this state of affairs.  He says, he feels ashamed of going into details on this issue but refers to the journal in which a statement of a Socialist party leader of Germany, namely Baibel, is published, in which he says that men and women are after all animals.  Can there be a question of marriage between males and females of animals?  The Shaikh says that this is the peak point of the modern culture.

At the end, Shaikh has added an interesting Urdu poem on the above subject from his collection of poetry titled Kulliyaat-e-Hasrat.  It is given below with its translation for readers.

 

 زر و مال سے شادیاں ہورہی ہیں
قرابت شرافت سے بیزاریاں ہیں

People are marrying for money.  There is no regard for goodness of character and respect for relatives.

 

سلکشن ہے نوشاہ کا سینما میں

ہوئ دور شادی کی دشواریں ہیں

The grooms are now selected in the Cinema Halls.  This must have provided ease in looking for bridegrooms.

 

 نہ شوفر سے پردہ نہ بٹلر سے پردہ
تو آیا کی بھی ناز برداریاں ہیں

As the wife does not care for veil or mingling with the drivers and male servants of the house, the men are also taking advantage of this,  by being extra friendly with the female house maids.

 

 اگر آپکے باغ کا پھول سونگھیں
برا کیا ہے ، یہ تو رواداریاں ہیں

If somebody from outside illegitimately gets involved with a woman of your household, it is fine, because the modern civilization has provided for this tolerance in society.

 

 اُدھر تم بھی خوش ہو اِدھر ہم بھی خوش ہیں
یہ آزادی میں کیا مزیداریاں ہیں

In such a situation, you can get involved with a woman or wife of the other person and vice versa,  and everybody stands to gain in this reciprocal pleasure.

 

 ہر اک اپنی ماں کا ہے بیٹا یقیناً
اب آگے خدا ہی کی ستّاریاں ہیں

Everybody is the son of his mother for sure.  But is unsure of his father.  It does not matter as Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is great  who covers  human failings.

 

 کٹیں چوٹیاں سبکی فیشن کے ہاتھوں
بس اب ناک کٹنے کی تیاریاں ہیں

By cutting their hairs in line with men, women have definitely become fashionable.  But what follows is, they will bring disgrace to their homes, society and nation as a whole.

 

بھلا ہیز لینوں میں کیونکر چھپین گی
جو چھروں سے ظاہر سیہ کاریں ہیں

In such a scenario why should the eunuch (gay/lesbian)  will hide in lanes as all men and women are doing the same thing.

 

 ڈرامے میں جب کام کرتے ہیں لڑکے
تو کیا کیا زنانہ اداکاریاں ہیں

When boys act in drams, films and TV serials, look at them, how they depict themselves by playing the roles of female characters.

 

حیا سوز ہیں سینما کے تماشے
تو قہر خدا کی شررباریں ہیں

When the show of cinimas and stage programs have become obscene, then Allah's (سبحانه و تعالى) wrath in the shape of disgrace in the world has become destined for you.  See what is happening to you already in the world.  This is all because of your evil deeds.

 

معاز الا له  ،  معازالا له
یہ کیا جھل ہے کیا غلط کاریاں ہیں 

We seek the protection of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and, again we seek the protection of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) from these people.  Alas, what kind of illiteracy is this and what kind of wrong doings they are involved in.

 

بِرَمَتِكَ يَا اَرْحَمُ الرَّاحِمِيْنَ
وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ رَبِّ الْعَلَمِيْنَ

 

 TAFSEER SURA AL-FATIHA PART (1)